Fortresses – Fortifications

  1. In the Kampoli Valley, on the western side of Parnitha and on its last slopes, there is a fortress called “Kokoremi” (altitude 318 m.). This is a small defense project with a peculiar construction, built according to the isodomic system with an oval shape. In many places the thickness of the wall is 1.90 m. To 2.30 m. The inner diameter is 12 m. And its inner circumference, 60 m. A gate 1.10 – 1.30 m wide is located southwest to the inn Kamboli.
  2. Opposite Kokoremi is a fortress of the Municipality of Oio, known today as “Castle” and dates back to the 5th century. It is built on a cliff (altitude 532 m.) And has a central circular tower with a diameter of 6 m. The fortress is now in ruins and based on this it is concluded that the thickness of the inner wall is about 2 meters and has a polygonal shape, while the outer walls built of masonry have a width of 2.5 – 3 m. The total length of the outer wall is 1.20 m.
  3. After returning to Hani Kampoli and taking the road that leads to Dervenochoria we meet the “Castle of Korynos” built 1 km northwest of the village Kokkini and west of the place “Kremeza”. It is built on a site of Parnitha which is called Megalo Vouno at an altitude of 520 m. It is 90 m long and is built on a cliff.
  4. On the plateau of Dervenochoria and west of the village Prasino (formerly Kavasila) are preserved the ruins of the important fortress of Panaktos (altitude 714 m.). The wider area of ​​the plateau that today belongs to the Prefecture of Viotia, was a point of friction between Athenians and Thebans. According to I. Sarris, the length of the fortress is estimated at 280 m. And the width 70 m. During the Peloponnesian War, the fortress was occupied by the Thebans with treason and subjugated to the area of ​​Tanagra. In 421 BC. It was returned to the Athenians, but after the Thebans demolished it. From the archeological remains it is estimated that the walls of the fortress date to the 6th BC. century. There is disagreement among historians whether the fortress of Panaktos is located on the plateau of Dervenochoria or near the road to Kaza, where the impressive fortress of Eleftheri (dimensions 280×150 m.) Is preserved in good condition. The dissidents, with the real location of the fortress of Panaktos, may have been so impressed by the well-maintained fortress of the Free that at the same time they were indifferent to the Panaktos destroyed by the Thebans, of which few ruins survive.
  5. West of the road to the fortress of the Tribe, at the edge of a cliff, at an altitude of 548 m. There are only its foundations built of mudstone. It is only 27 m long and its construction seems older than the fortress of the Tribe.
  6. At an altitude of 687 m. Above the source of Agia Paraskevi, at the southern foot of Parnitha, north – northwest of present-day Hasia is the ancient fortress of the Tribe. The walls of the fortress are built of raw and polygonal stones and extend to the top of the ridge, following the ground to the north, east and part of the southern slope of the hill. The west side and part of the south have not been walled, because the cliffs were in themselves a strong natural fortification. It is 30 m wide and about 100 m long and is reinforced at the corners with towers. The fortress dates back to the 4th century BC. It has an irregular elliptical shape and its walls in some places are maintained at a great height. The thickness of the walls is 2.75 m. The fortress has 6 square towers and 1 round one in its northern corner. The round one is the most imposing of all with a diameter slightly larger than 6 m. It has a nice isodomic masonry.
  7. To the south and east of the surviving fortress of the Tribe existed until the beginning of the century, the ruins of three towers, on the low hills, which reach the place “Kalamara”. These towers must have served mainly as supports of the oldest fortress of the 5th century BC. with which they would constitute a unified defense system (PAE 1900 48).
  8. Between the places Tsougrati and Mazareka rises to a peak 737 m. Tower, which is named “Pyrgari”. It is a square built in the isodomic way with dimensions of 8×8 m. It is located in an inaccessible location and is ruined. A part of it is preserved on its north side. The tower is divided into interior walls with four unequal quadrilateral spaces and there is no entrance.
  9. About 8.5 km north – northeast of the fortress of the Tribe at an altitude of 814 m. Is a tower of the same dimensions as the “Pyrgari”. This is the tower of Loimikos, named after the valley of the same name and the wider forest area occupied by the Menidiates. It is square 8×8 m. And is saved with six (6) rows of isodomic masonry. It consists of stones carved or slightly polished. Its height reaches 3.5 m. And its entrance is from the east side. It is divided internally by three unequal sections, one of which is filled with stones up to the top. In the smallest of them there is an entrance at a height of 1.30 m from the ground. From here one enters the adjacent and larger quadrangular space located at a height of 2.50 m. It is claimed to be a frying pan (tower from where signals are sent). The construction of the tower of Loimikos is placed in the first half of the 4th century BC.
  10. A well-known fortress from ancient sources is “Lipsidrio”. There is a possibility in the area of ​​Metochi of Parnitha. Herodotus mentions that he is “in favor of Paionis”, that is, above the ancient municipality of Paionides. From this fortress there are few building remains made of raw stones, in an extremely inaccessible location called “Korakofoleza” and above the south bank of the stream Agios Georgios (altitude 581 m.). In general, “Lipsidrio” has the character of temporaryity and was built for a special purpose. Its length is 41.5 m from east to west and its width is 65 m. Many pieces of clay cover the territory of the fortress which, as its name implies, is built in an arid area.
  11. Another fortress of exceptional importance was the “Paleokastro”, located at an altitude of 506 m. In the area of Dhekelia. Few ruins survive today on a low hill and surround an elongated elliptical area at the top of a hill, measuring 400×150 m., It is a rough construction. In the north-northwestern part of the hill there is part of the prehistoric polygonal wall and traces of a retaining wall of a road. Shells and a pseudo-mouthed amphora have been found at this site.
  12. To the east, above the source of the Tribe, it is reported by A. Skia that they are located on a hilltop and occupy a large area, “many ancient walls of large slow stones or polygonal neglected”. A. Skias considers that this is probably the fortress occupied by Thrasyvoulos.
  13. The fortress “Katsimidi” is another fortification project located at a height of 849 m., 3.7 km north of Paleokastro. Many identified Katsimidi with the fortress of Dhekelia that was walled in 413 BC. the king of the Lacedaemonians Agis. It is a relatively small building with dimensions of 8.5×7.5 m. Which obviously served as an observatory. The whole area is now scattered with ceramics and blackened roof tiles. Built in an arid location and small in size it was probably a frying pan or observatory.
  14. Near Loimiko there is a tower – watchtower. It belongs with the tower in Tsoukrati in the signal system of Parnitha.
  15. At the top of Velatouri hill there is a circular tower with a diameter of 8.70 m. Which was probably used as a frying pan or observatory. It is located on the west – southwest side of the hill and at an altitude of 532 m.
  16. At the top of Kastro at an altitude of 224 m., Northeast of Magoula (outside the borders of Parnitha) above Hani Kampoli, there are ruins of an ancient wall (2 m. High) and a tower with a diameter of 6.5 m. It is also called Plakoto and Building .
  17. To the east of Demata, on the hill of Pyrgathi, there is a circular tower with a diameter of 7.5 m. That is still preserved today at a height of 2 m. Its interior is full of stones. It has an elliptical enclosure around it, measuring 35×20 m. In its enclosure were found two pieces of pot handles dating to the end of the 6th – beginning of the 5th century BC. Six pieces of pottery date to the second half of the 4th century BC. – first quarter of the 3rd century BC. Several pieces of beehives and two Roman lamps of the 5th – 6th century AD were also found. The tower can be characterized as an observatory and as a key strategic location attached to the wall of the Package.